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被生态环境部点名的高通量、高内涵检测和筛选技术是什么?

2022-08-26 11:21:30来源:环保在线 阅读量:43948

导读:在刚刚举行的8月例行新闻发布会上,生态环境部提到高通量虚拟筛选技术原理、体外高通量和高内涵靶向测试方法原理研究,这是什么?
  在刚刚举行的8月例行新闻发布会上,生态环境部提到,随着污染防治攻坚战的深入推进,一些新问题逐渐凸现,迫切需要在基础应用研究方面进行一批前瞻性布局,其中就包括以计算毒理学为基础的高通量虚拟筛选技术原理、体外高通量和高内涵靶向测试方法原理研究。
 
  什么是高通量虚拟筛选技术?
 
  什么是体外高通量测试?
 
  什么是高内涵靶向测试?
 
  本文就简单带你了解一下。
 
  HTS和HTVS
 
  高通量筛选(HTS)技术是指以分子水平和细胞水平的实验方法为基础,以微板形式作为实验工具载体,以自动化操作系统执行试验过程,以灵敏快速的检测仪器采集实验结果数据,以计算机分析处理实验数据,在同一时间检测数以千万的样品,并以得到的相应数据库支持运转的技术体系。
 
  从其定义中也能看到,这种技术总结起来就是“多、快、灵、准”,高度自动化更是让其有了更大的实用价值。目前,FLIPR荧光检测法、AlphaScreen检测法都是国际上较为常用的检测方法。
 
  了解到HTS技术的优势,也要看到HTS技术面临的局限性,这也是高通量虚拟筛选(HTVS)诞生的意义。比如,当100万个甚至1000万个化合物进入了HTVS筛查,就可能会形成一个包含千种或者万种化合物的子集,相当于在虚拟实验中进行了初筛,由此显然能极大提高效率。
 
  此前就由研究团队利用HTVS技术加速发现了二氧化碳(CO2)捕集能力优异的MOFs,并证明和提出了吸附量和选择性的权衡变量与MOFs结构参数的强相关性。
 
  高通量检测与测序
 
  高通量检测技术一次可检测多个样品或对同一样品进行多种检测,高分辨率质谱技术、生物芯片及生物传感器技术、可视化快速检测技术等目前都是较为常用的类别。其中,高分辨率质谱技术又可细化为飞行时间质谱(TOF MS)分析技术、静电场轨道阱质谱(Orbitrap MS)、实时直接分析(DART),生物芯片及生物传感器技术可细化为蛋白芯片技术、悬浮芯片技术(SAT)和表面等离子共振(SPR)生物传感器技术等。
 
  目前,高通量检测技术已经用于核酸检测中,其对于病毒检测、霉菌毒素检测、药物残留检测等均有很大的应用价值,针对性的高通量检测仪器仪表产品也在不断迭代中。
 
  高通量测序,能够一次并行对大量核酸分子进行平行序列测定的技术,通常一次测序反应能产出不低于100Mb的测序数据。业界评价,高通量测序技术是对传统测序一次革命性的改变,所以也被称为“下一代测序技术”,主要有大规模平行签名测序(MPSS)、聚合酶克隆、454焦磷酸测序、Illumina (Solexa) sequencing、ABI SOLiD sequencing、离子半导体测序、DNA 纳米球测序 、联合探针锚定合成测序法(cPAS)等。
 
  高内涵筛选(HCS)
 
  HCS技术是为寻找先导物针对大量样品进行药理活性评价分析的一种技术手段,基于细胞的HCS技术实现了对化合物多靶点多参数的同时检测,可以用来确定生物活性和潜在毒性。HCS技术与HTS技术各有千秋,HCS技术能确保高通量研究所需的自由度,应用广泛且灵活。就毒理学研究来说,HCS技术算得上是细胞表型筛选利器。
 
  综合上述“技术贴”,前沿研究方向相当针对病理和毒性研究,这对目前的环境检测领域来说是不小的挑战。但无论是医疗废弃物、医疗废水、工业废弃物&工业废水,或者危险废弃物及“毒地”污染治理,还是新污染物防控,都需要更高效、精准、快捷的检测手段,这也依赖于高端科学仪器仪表的发展。
 

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