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风口上的焦化行业,吹响废水处理的冲锋号角

2022-09-15 14:45:05来源:莱特莱德·环境 阅读量:7636

导读:多年来我国焦炭产量一直占世界焦炭总产量的67%以上,在政策利好和技术进步背景下,焦化行业前景光明。而随着环保要求趋严,焦化废水的循环利用被提上日程,膜法处理焦化废水,在实现再利用的前提下,也为企业走上技术化、集约型、高效益、可持续发展之路奠定了坚实基础。
  中国是世界上焦炭生产大国,多年来我国焦炭产量一直占世界焦炭总产量的67%以上。2017年至2021年我国焦炭产量从43143万吨增加至46445.8万吨,年均复合增长率为1.86%。2022年,我国焦炭产量将有望达到47310.3万吨。
 
  我国拥有完整的焦化工业体系,在规模、产量、技术和管理等方面,均处于高水平,为我国钢铁、化工、有色冶炼和机械制造等领域的国民经济发展做出了巨大贡献。经过多年的发展,焦化行业经历人工化、机械化、电气化阶段,现正朝着自动化和智能化方向发展。转型、技术升级的进步在不断重塑焦化行业。同时,在政策利好和技术进步背景下,焦化行业前景光明。
 
  “十四五”新时期,焦化行业高质量、绿色发展路径
 
  “十四五”时期,根据《焦化行业“十四五”发展规划纲要》阐述,焦化行业面临着新要求。到2025年焦化废水产生量减少30%,氮氧化物和二氧化硫产生量分别减少20%;优化固体废弃物处理工艺,固体废弃物资源化利源率提高10%以上。
 
  环保要求趋严,要求企业对焦化废水处理至达标后排放,走高质量、绿色发展路径。对于一些水资源缺乏的地方,要求将焦化废水处理至回用标准,回用于企业内部,实现废水的近零排放。而焦化废水中含有大量的大分子难降解有机物,传统的活性污泥法不能有效的去除该部分物质,使得生化出水中仍含有较多的有机物。导致其出水不能达标排放或回用于企业内部。因此,针对其中的难降解有机物,需对其进行深度处理。
 
  目前,国内对焦化废水主要采用活性污泥法和混凝沉淀法联合处理,能达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978—1996)二级排放标准。随着新的《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》(GB16171—2012)实施,炼焦化学污水直接排放标准将于2015年进一步提高至COD80mg/L、氨氮10mg/L,原有生化处理方式已经不能满足新标准的绿色发展要求。
 
  打造焦化废水资源化利用新方向
 
  焦化行业中的一批关键核心工艺装备,实现了从引进、模仿、跟踪向自主创新和研发制造。我国焦化产业已经形成了集“设计研发、装备制造、建设施工、生产运营、检化验”等为一体的较为完备的工业体系,工艺流程和现代化装备水平不断提升,为建设我国现代化焦化产业提供了坚实的技术装备保障。
 
  其中,膜分离技术是现代化设备应用的关键技术,主要的优势在于对焦化废水污染的处理,符合行业新的发展目标。膜分离技术与传统的分离过程如过滤、精馏、萃取、蒸发、重结晶、脱色、吸附等相比,具有操作简便,设备紧凑,工作环境安全,节约能耗和化学试剂,无相变,无污染等特点,是具有发展前途的高新技术之一,将在21世纪的工业技术改造中起决定性的作用。
 
  在焦化废水进一步深度处理过程中,采用超滤、反渗透等膜组合技术,可实现废水资源的循环利用,符合国家倡导的以低消耗、低排放和高效率为基本特征的循环经济发展模式,与焦化废水“十四五”时期新要求完全“契合”。
 
  膜分离技术深度处理焦化废水,打出“组合拳”
 
  焦化废水的水质因工艺流程和生产操作方式不同而有差异,一般焦化厂经脱酚、蒸氨、生化、回用后的浓盐水的含盐量高,通常大于15 000mg/L;COD含量高且基本均为难生化降解有机物,通常在300~1 000mg/L;氟离子含量很高,通常大于150mg/L,硬度不高。水量通常不太大,随焦化规模不同浓盐水量从每小时几十吨到几百吨不等。
 
  焦化废水深度处理的方法很多,目前有广泛应用前途的工艺为分盐工艺,通常采用分盐纳滤膜分为一价氯化钠和二价硫酸钠,分盐后浓淡水侧分别浓缩,浓缩后的高浓盐水进一步资源化。整体工艺为预处理+膜集成浓缩+高浓盐水资源化。
 
  焦化废水中胶体含量比较多,需采用超滤去除水中大部分胶体。水中主要盐分为硫酸钠和氯化钠,少量NO-3、K+、F-,采用分盐纳滤膜进行分盐。分盐后浓淡水侧采用膜集成工艺分别浓缩。
 
  纳滤浓水侧主要为浓缩后的硫酸钠,COD主要在纳滤浓水侧,浓缩后硫酸钠浓度约3.5%~5%,COD约200~800mg/L。通常采用浓水纳滤进一步浓缩硫酸钠浓度至6%~12%,或采用蒸汽机械再压缩技术进行蒸发浓缩。
 
  纳滤产水侧主要为氯化钠,浓度约1%~1.5%,COD含量约50~100 mg/L,二价离子含量通常很低,不易发生有机物污染和无机物结垢,水质相对好。通常通过反渗透进一步浓缩至氯化钠浓度为8%~10%,或通过反渗透浓缩至氯化钠浓度为4%~5%后通过电渗析浓缩至16%~20%。
 
  膜集成浓缩工艺是在焦化废水深度处理领域研究和应用较多的处理工艺。膜分离等深度处理技术可提高资源回收利用率、提高处理能力与效率、降低能耗与运营成本,将是今后发展的重点方向。
 
  结语:
 
  作为我国煤炭消费第二大行业,风口上的焦化行业减碳行动刻不容缓,且减污降碳任务艰巨、挑战严峻。未来,焦化行业作为煤消耗、碳排放大户,势必还会在各方政策支持下,走上更为清洁、绿色的生产之路。
 
  在焦化废水处理中,不同的处理工艺各有优缺点,根据企业的实际情况选择才合理。采用超滤、反渗透等膜组合技术,可实现废水资源的循环利用,符合国家倡导的以低消耗、低排放和高效率为基本特征的循环经济发展模式。膜法处理焦化废水,实现了焦化废水的回收再利用,保护了环境,节约了水资源;并为企业走上技术化、集约型、高效益、可持续发展之路奠定了坚实基础。
 
  本文系莱特莱德·环境投稿,不代表本站的观点和立场。文章内容仅供参考,若涉及侵权,请及时联系本站处理。

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