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锂原料两年内价格上涨十余倍,何解?工信部正加快制定动力蓄电池回收利用管理办法

2022-09-19 11:20:36来源:环保在线 阅读量:8920

导读:综合环保要求、锂资源分布不均、锂价较高及上游“吃肉”、下游“喝汤”等因素衡量,对制造企业来说,开拓动力电池回收业务已迫在眉睫。随着相关政策标准体系不断完善,行业规范性也会进一步提升。届时,谁手中握有技术及产业化发展实力,谁就可以成为这一新兴市场的“领头羊”之一。
  为加快交通领域碳达峰目标实现,机动车新能源化已成趋势。最新数据显示,2022年8月份我国新能源汽车销量达66.6万辆,同环比增长12.3%,至此新能源汽车渗透率再刷新,达到了27.9%。而就在市场呈现出高景气度的同时,动力电池回收处理难题也一再引起国家层面的重视。
 
  9月15-16日,工信部先后召开锂资源产业发展座谈会、“推动工业绿色低碳循环发展”主题新闻发布会,均提及了动力电池回收利用的问题,要点有:
 
  ①全国已设立一万多个回收服务网点;②新能源汽车动力蓄电池回收利用管理办法有望出台;③将退役电池柔性拆解、高效再生利用等关键技术攻关提上日程;④围绕“多开发、稳进口、减量化、促回收”协同各方加快国内资源开发利用;⑤探索形成“梯次电池以租代售”“废料换原材料”等一批新型商业模式。
 
  换句话说,在当前基础上,我国动力电池回收利用体系建设将进一步持续提速,这必然也将带来更多的市场发展机遇。据统计,截至2020年全国动力电池累计退役量已经达到了20万吨,到2025年这一数值预计会增至80万。如能够进行妥善回收处理,不仅能避免废旧电池带来环境污染,也能减少锂等资源的浪费,缓解原材料紧张局面。
 
  有关券商表示,碳中和背景下,电动车和储能市场都会快速扩张,预计2020-2026年间锂电池潜在需求量将达到25TWh,按照1GWh电池生产对应碳酸锂需求600吨计算,预计约1500万吨碳酸锂才能满足行业发展需要。因此,从原料存量和可持续发展角度考虑,废旧动力电池回收也是一项有前景且很必要的工作。
 
  在稳定市场价格上,动力电池回收利用同样会起到重要作用。上海钢联数据显示,在9月13日,我国电池级碳酸锂均价再次突破了50万元/吨,较两年4万元/吨的价格涨幅近12倍。由此新能源汽车及储能市场都出现了上游原材料企业利润“暴增”,但下游整车及动力电池制造企业增收不增利,甚至毛利润不升反降的情况。
 
  为应对市场价格不稳定的形式,下游制造企业也纷纷看好废旧电池回收赛道,并加快相关业务布局,如宁德时代。宁德时代董事长曾毓群曾发言称,电池里面绝大部分材料都是可以循环利用的。以我们的邦普为例,对镍钴锰的回收率已经达到了99.3%,锂的回收利用率也达到了90%以上”,而这些足以帮助产业下游突破矿产资源的瓶颈。
 
  总之,综合环保要求、锂资源分布不均、锂价较高及上游“吃肉”、下游“喝汤”等因素衡量,对制造企业来说,开拓动力电池回收业务已迫在眉睫。随着相关政策标准体系不断完善,行业规范性也会进一步提升。届时,谁手中握有技术及产业化发展实力,谁就可以成为这一新兴市场的“领头羊”之一。

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